Textile testing equipment classification
1. Appearance quality testing equipment
is used to test the appearance quality of yarns and printed and dyed fabrics. Appearance quality usually refers to yarn evenness, yarn defects, and dye fastness of printed and dyed fabrics. There are three methods for inspecting yarn evenness and yarn defects: eye evaluation method, weighing method and instrument method. The eye evaluation method only requires a simple blackboard shaker. The weighing method uses a semi-automatic electronic count balance, which can quickly weigh out the count of the fixed-length hank, and print out the average count and count unevenness. The instrument method mainly uses the Uster evenness tester.
 Uster evenness tester
is used to determine the evenness of sliver, roving and spun yarn (Figure 4). The instrument is designed according to the principle that the capacitance changes with the linear density of the yarn when the yarn passes between the capacitor plates. This instrument was successfully developed by the Swiss Uster company in the 1940s, and later gradually developed various models. The B type is suitable for short fiber yarns such as cotton, wool, rayon and hemp yarn, and the C type is suitable for chemical fiber filaments and synthetic fiber yarns. Early instruments can automatically record the unevenness curve, and can integrate the average difference coefficient of the yarn sliver. The instrument that came out in the 1970s has high detection efficiency and can automatically calibrate the zero point. The instrument in the 1980s can automatically change the bobbin, automatically adjust the average value, and automatically print out the coefficient of mean square error or coefficient of average difference. This instrument is also equipped with a spectrometer, which can draw a spectrum of yarn unevenness to analyze the uneven nature of the yarn and the cause of the unevenness; the neps and trash meter can determine the size of a certain length of yarn according to the specified size. Number of neps and impurities in cotton and wool yarns.
 Dyeing and Dyeing Fabric Dyeing Fastness Tester
is used to detect the degree of fading of printed and dyed fabrics after exposure to sunlight and friction. Most of them are designed to imitate the actual use of printed and dyed fabrics, such as light fastness tester, soap fastness tester, rubbing fastness tester, sublimation fastness tester and so on. The color fastness test method varies with the type of equipment.
 2, fabric style testing instrument
An instrument that detects certain physical and mechanical properties of fabrics to comprehensively evaluate fabric styles. The fabric style in a broad sense refers to the response of the fabric to human tactile and visual faculties; in a narrow sense, it only refers to the sense of touch, which is usually called the feel. Fabric style is also divided into value style and characteristic style. Value style refers to the aesthetics and comfort of clothing; characteristic style can be divided into single factor characteristic style (such as smooth, full, crisp, etc.) and multiple factor characteristic style (such as wool type) Sensation, silky sensuality, hemp-type sensation, etc.). Fabric style has always been evaluated by hand feel and visual inspection, and this method still occupies a dominant position. In 1930, the cantilever beam method was used to measure the bending length and bending stiffness of fabric samples to express the feel properties of the fabric. In the 1950s, American scholars proposed to use the large traction force when a circular sample passed through the loop to express the fabric’s hand, and thus the early hand-feel tester appeared. In the test, the sample is subjected to bending, compression and surface friction at the same time, so the measurement result has a comprehensive nature. In the early 1970s, Japanese scholar Kawabata Yoshio proposed to use the fabric’s pure bending, surface properties (friction coefficient and roughness), stretch (including shear), compressibility, etc. to comprehensively reflect the fabric style, and consist of instruments that detect these properties. KES-F series fabric style instrument. Using this series of four instruments to measure 16 indicators, evaluate basic style values ​​such as stiff (scratched), smooth (sweet), and full (full) according to different uses of the fabric, and then input the computer to obtain the comprehensive style value. China has developed a fabric style instrument and corresponding testing methods. The instrument has a simple structure and good performance. Fabrics are often subjected to various external forces during actual use, resulting in wrinkles, surface defects, and dimensional changes. These are closely related to the shape retention and surface uniformity of clothing, and belong to the range of fabric styles. Instruments for detecting these properties include a wrinkle recovery angle tester, a surface uniformity tester, and a shrinkage rate tester.
 Fabric wrinkle recovery angle detector
Fold the fabric sample in half and apply a pressure close to the weight of the human body (150-300 g/cm2) to make the sample form a crease. After a certain period of time, press it to restore the crease. The larger the recovery angle, the better the wrinkle resistance of the fabric. China has used semi-automatic fabric wrinkle elasticity tester.
 Fabric surface uniformity tester
 The fabric often fuzzes and pilling and snags during taking, this phenomenon will obviously destroy the uniformity of the fabric surface, thereby affecting the apparent quality of the fabric. The fabric fuzzing and pilling instrument is roughly divided into two types: first fuzzing and then fuzzing and simultaneous fuzzing and pilling. The brush pilling instrument first uses a brush to rub the sample and then pilling with the same fabric or other standard abrasives in a soft state. Drum-type tumbling instrument and square box-type tumbling instrument place the sample in a box (or drum) to continuously roll and interact with the abrasive, and the fuzzing and pilling are completed in one step in the instrument. For fabric snagging tests, many countries use the mace-type snagging instrument. In China, besides the mace-type snagging instrument, there is also a needle-rolling snagging instrument.
 3, process property testing equipment
 Instrument for testing process properties such as fiber length, fineness, crimp, yarn twist, yarn hairiness and moisture regain. There are fiber length tester, fiber fineness tester, fiber crimp tester, yarn hairiness tester, yarn twist tester, moisture regain tester, etc.
Fiber Length Meter
An instrument to detect the straight length of the fiber. At the beginning of the 20th century, people used the hand-pulling method to measure the length of the fiber bundle. In the early 1930s, the arranging method and the comb method were used to detect the length. In the 1950s, manual adjustment and detection were used, and soon it was changed to servo motor automatic tracking. In the 1970s, the United States developed a new camera length meter, which can measure the length of cotton fiber and chemical fiber, and the length can be measured up to 63 mm. In the 1980s, it has been further developed into digital display, automatic data processing and printing out related length indicators, and the test efficiency has been significantly improved. The Arealometer capacitive wool length meter produced in Belgium is equipped with an automatic fiber finishing mechanism, which can arrange the fibers into a neat bundle at one end. When the hair bundle is placed on the plastic film and passed through the electric field, the average length of the hairs and the weight-weighted average length can be obtained. This kind of instrument is only suitable for wool tops, and the error is relatively large when used for loose wool. The length of cotton fiber in China mainly uses a roller-type length tester. The fibers neatly arranged at one end are placed on the instrument, and the weight-weighted average length and other indicators are obtained after grouping and weighing at a certain interval. The length of wool fiber is generally measured with a comb length meter. The length of raw silk and chemical fiber filaments is measured with a yarn frame length gauge with a certain circumference.
fiber fineness meter
The methods to detect fiber fineness are: ①Direct method: or called the mid-cut method, cut the fiber bundles of fixed length, parallel and straight, after weighing and counting the number of fibers, the metric count, denier or special number of the single fiber is calculated , Only need some simple weighing instruments. ②Indirect method: There are airflow method and sound pressure method. When airflow or sound waves pass through a quantitative cluster of fiber aggregates, the air pressure and sound pressure change, and the magnitude of the change varies with the thickness of the fiber. Generally, the thinner the fiber, the more the air pressure and sound pressure decrease. Various types of airflow fineness meters based on this principle appeared in the early 1950s. Later, China developed a digital micro-pressure airflow fineness meter suitable for a variety of fibers. ③Vibration method: According to the principle that the mass per unit length of the fiber has a certain relationship with its natural frequency under a certain tension, the vibration method fineness meter can measure the fineness of individual fibers and filaments, and obtain the coefficient of variation of fineness. The fiber width meter detects the radial projection width of the fiber in the natural state. When the cross-section of the fiber is circular, this width corresponds to the fiber diameter. The diameter of wool fiber is used as the basis for quality evaluation. The fiber width or diameter is generally detected by a biological microscope or a projector, but it is troublesome and the efficiency is very low. Therefore, an instrument for measuring fiber diameter with a laser appeared. This instrument is designed based on the fact that when the fiber dispersed in the liquid stream passes through a 1 mm laser, the amount of laser scattering is proportional to the fiber diameter. With this instrument, the diameter and distribution of individual fibers can be measured.
static meter
 There are two types: friction type and induction type. The friction electrostatic meter is to directly measure the static voltage on the sample after the sample is triboelectrically generated; the induction electrostatic meter is to measure the static voltage or half-life of the sample after the sample is charged in an electric field.
 Friction Coefficient Tester
There are many methods for measuring the friction coefficient of fibers. Generally, the friction coefficient of short fibers is measured by a winch method friction coefficient tester, which is also called a Röder method friction coefficient tester. This instrument can not only test the coefficient of friction between fiber and fiber, but also test the coefficient of friction between fiber and metal, fiber and other materials (Figure 6). In addition, there are various types of friction coefficient testers for yarns and filaments. Since the 1980s, a measuring instrument for dynamic and static friction coefficients that can automatically measure and record has been developed.
 Curl Tester
An instrument that measures the number of crimps per unit length of fiber. There are generally two methods for measuring curling: visual inspection and projection. The mechanical crimp elasticity meter produced in Japan can measure the crimp rate and crimp elasticity. The fiber crimp elasticity meter (Figure 7) developed by China for measuring displacement by the grating method has high accuracy and has certain characteristics for measuring the crimp of chemical fiber short fibers.
Yarn Hairiness Tester
An instrument for detecting hairiness on the surface of short fiber yarn. Most of these instruments are designed using the principle of photoelectric counting. The hairiness tester produced in Japan can automatically count the number of hairiness and hairiness length, and can print the results. The instrument can measure staple fiber yarns below 3000 denier, the measurable hairiness length is 0-10 mm, and the yarn speed is 30 m/min. Another type of hairiness counter has two sensors, which can be used for both short fiber yarns and filaments below 1500 denier. Yarn speed is 10~1500m/min, four-digit display. There are also instruments that use dark field to detect hairiness, with high accuracy (0.2 mm), and the hairiness length can be divided into three levels of 3, 5, and 7 mm for detection. The photoelectric hairiness tester developed by China in the early 1980s has good performance.
Yarn twisting meter
An instrument that detects the number of twists and twists within a unit length of yarn. There are two methods for detecting yarn twist: complete twisting method and "de twisting-plus twisting" method. The complete withdrawal method is suitable for roving and ply yarn. Most of the detection of single yarn twisting adopts the "retracting-adding twisting" method, and the instrument used is an electric twisting meter. Since the end of the 1970s, the degree of automation of the twisting instrument has been significantly improved. Japan has a single fully automatic twisting instrument that can continuously and automatically measure the twisting value and print the result. Some automatic twisting instruments can detect the twisting degree with one-time withdrawal-addition method, double withdrawal-addition method and other methods. 10 bobbins can be automatically changed according to the specified number of tests, and the results are printed out.
Moisture Regain Tester
 There are two types of direct drying and indirect measurement. In addition to the commonly used oven, direct drying also has a rapid drying instrument that uses infrared, high frequency and microwave. The application of these fast dryers in textiles is still not very popular. There are mainly two types of indirect measuring instruments: resistance moisture meter and capacitance moisture meter. These two instruments are designed based on the principle that the resistance and dielectric constant of textile materials are related to the amount of moisture contained in the material. Among them, the resistance moisture meter has been widely used. Some countries have formulated a series to quickly determine the moisture regain of fibers, yarns, fabrics, and even sizing agents. Some instruments also have the function of controlling production. The resistance type raw cotton and cheese moisture regain detector made in China has been widely used in production and has good performance.
 4, fabric testing equipment
Fabric tension machine, zipper fatigue tester, fabric pilling tester, ICI pilling tester, button tension tester, zipper reciprocating fatigue tester, roller box pilling tester, moisture tester, fabric flat grinding Meter, fabric thickness meter (fabric thickness meter, portable fabric thickness meter), fabric density mirror, fabric tear meter, fabric weight meter, button press, cloth weight balance (fabric weight balance), sample cutter (Hong Kong Sample cutter, domestic sample cutter), cutter (manual sample cutter), electronic yarn count detection system
5. Textile equipment for printing and dyeing fastness
Perspiration resistance color fastness tester, rubbing color fastness tester (rubbing color fastness tester, AATCC rotary rubbing color fastness tester), color fastness tribometer, horizontal burning tester, vertical burning tester, 45 degrees Burning tester, washing fastness tester, shrinkage tester (domestic standard washing machine, AATCC standard washing machine (Whirlpool washing machine, Kenmore washing machine), AATCC standard clothes dryer (Whirlpool washing machine, Kenmore clothes dryer), textile Use viscometer, textile printer
6. General textile testing equipment
Metal detector (handheld metal detector, flat metal detector, gantry metal detector), standard color matching light box (UK VerVide CAC60 color matching light box, UK VerVide CAC120 color matching light box, UK VerVide color review light box CAC150, Judge II imported standard light source color matching light box, SPECTRALIGHT Ⅲ American standard light box, SPL III imported standard light source color matching light box, LG-600 four light sources, LG-600 five light sources, LG-600 six light sources), needle detector (luxury desktop Needle detector, double safety needle detector, anti-interference needle detector, wide conveyor type needle detector), magnifying glass (three-fold magnifying glass, 40 times reading magnifying glass)
 7, textile simulation

What are the textile testing instruments

environment testing instrument
Pointer push-pull meter, digital push-pull meter, digital thermo-hygrometer, infrared thermometer, illuminance meter, noise meter, constant temperature and humidity box, drying box, wind speed thermometer, color difference meter, constant temperature incubator, temperature and humidity record instrument

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